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5.3Important LinksDigital Support Online quizzes, study notes, and morewww.edvantagescience.comOrder your own copy of AP Chemistry 1…

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5.3Important LinksDigital Support Online quizzes, study notes, and morewww.edvantagescience.comOrder your own copy of AP Chemistry 1 www.edvantageinteractive.com5.3 Beyond Bohr — The Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom Warm Up 1. How did Max Planck and Albert Einstein contribute to the development of Niels Bohr’s atomic theory?2. State the main points of Bohr’s atomic theory in your own words.Particles Behaving Like WavesWave Behavior Niels Bohr’s theory firmly established the concept of fixed atomic energy levels. Although there were a few fine details of hydrogen’s line spectrum that the theory couldn’t account for, his model of the hydrogen atom appeared very promising. Unfortunately, when Bohr’s theory was applied to the line spectra of atoms having more than one electron, it didn’t work at all. All attempts to modify the theory to make it work were unsuccessful. It soon became clear that the atomic puzzle hadn’t yet been solved. Bohr assumed that an atom had only certain allowable energy levels in order to account for hydrogen’s observed line spectrum. However, that assumption was not rooted in any physical theory. In other words, Bohr knew the energy levels had to be there, but not why they had to be there. It appeared that a new theory containing some bold ideas about the atom might be needed. That new theory was eventually called quantum mechanics, and it had its beginnings in 1923 with the ideas of a young French aristocrat. Louis de Broglie had originally earned a degree in history and was trying to decide on a subject for his doctoral thesis in physics. He had just learned that a professor in Missouri named Arthur Compton had proven the existence of the light quanta (later called photons) proposed by Albert Einstein. A fascinating idea occurred to de Broglie: If waves behaved like particles, could it also be possible for particles to have wave properties? By proposing that matter was wavelike, de Broglie was also suggesting a reason, or theoretical foundation, for an electron’s fixed energy levels. To understand this reason, we must briefly discuss some aspects of wave behavior. Consider a string of length L under tension fixed at both ends, such as a guitar string (Figure 5.3.1). When the string is plucked, it begins to oscillate as a wave. As it oscillates, only certain frequencies (and therefore wavelengths) are possible if the wave is to be maintained. This stable or “standing” wave must have a wavelength (λ) such that a whole number (n) of half-wavelengths (λ/2) fit within the length L of the string. Any fractional amount of half-wavelengths will cause the wave to break down by a process known as destructive interference. Thus a stable wave can only exist if integral numbers of half-wavelengths exist within the length L of the string. That is: L = 1(λ/2), L = 2(λ/2), L = 3(λ/2), L = 4(λ/2), L = 5(λ/2),…etc, or if: L = n(λ/2), where n is a whole number: 1, 2, 3, 4,…etc. Any situation where n is not a whole number, such as 3.3, will result in the wave breaking down. This means that there is a quantum restriction equal to λ/2 on the maintenance of the wave. Unless 1, 2, 3, 4 or any whole number of quanta (half-wavelengths) exists in the length of the string, no wave can be maintained.© Edvantage Interactive 2017Chapter 5 A Closer Look at Matter 283Vibrating stringVibrating electronLn=3 wavelengthsL= 1( λ ) 2n =1 1 half-wavelengthL= 2( λ ) 2n =2n=5 wavelengths2 half-wavelengths L= 3( λ ) 2n =3 3 half-wavelengths L=n( λ ) 2n=3.3 wavelengths (not allowed)Figure 5.3.1 Both for a guitar string and an electron, only certain wavelengths allow a standing wave to bemaintained.Now imagine bending this string around and closing it into a circle representing an electron orbit. De Broglie considered what the requirements would be for a stable orbit if electrons did exhibit wave motion. He proposed that the only stable electron orbits were those whose size, and corresponding energy, allowed for standing electron waves to be maintained. Orbits of any other size would cause the electron wave to break down. Look again at Figure 5.3.1: A condition for maintenance of a standing wave within a string of length L is a whole number n of half-wavelengths.A condition for maintenance of a stable electron orbit: a circular standing electron wave.An important consequence of prescribing a wave nature to the electron is that it suggests a reason for the electron’s quantized energy states proposed by Bohr: The only allowed orbits (n = 1, 2, 3, etc.) for electrons are those whose size (and therefore energy) allows for a standing electron wave to be maintained.De Broglie’s Equation In his Ph.D. thesis, De Broglie derived an equation to calculate the wavelength of a particle. He did so by combining two now-famous equations, one proposed by Albert Einstein and the other by Max Planck. According to Einstein: E = mc2 where E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of light According to Planck: E = hν where E is energy, ν is frequency, and h is Planck’s constant284 Chapter 5 A Closer Look at Matter© Edvantage Interactive 2017Note also that because Therefore:c = λν, then ν = c/λ mc2 = hc/λDe Broglie knew that any particle having a mass could never reach the speed of light, so he replaced the value c with v to represent the velocity of a particle. This gave: Cancelling common terms yielded Re-written as:mv2 = hv/λ mv = h/λ and so h = mvλ λ = h/mvThis is de Broglie’s equation and it is significant for several reasons: • First, it tells us that any moving particle, whether it’s an electron or a baseball, has a wavelength that we can calculate. • Second, it shows us that a particle’s wavelength is inversely proportional to its mass: as the mass of a particle decreases, its wavelength increases and vice versa. • Third (and perhaps most important), because the value of Planck’s constant is so very small (6.626 × 10–34J.s), virtually any particle big enough for us to see has a wavelength so incredibly small that it can’t even be measured. However, particles with a mass as small as an electron have wavelengths that are very significant.Calculating Wavelengths We can demonstrate this by calculating the de Broglie wavelength for two particles, one we are familiar with and another we are not. A 100 mph (160 km/h) major league fastball and a hydrogen electron each have a wavelength (Figure 5.3.2). The baseball has a mass of 0.120 kg and a velocity of 44.4 m/s. It thus has a wavelength λ given by: λ=Figure 5.3.2 All movingparticles, large (a baseball) or tiny (an electron), have a wavelength that can be calculated.6.626 × 10–34 J • s = 1.24 × 10–34 m (0.120 kg)(44.4 m/s)To put this wavelength into perspective, consider that a hydrogen atom has a diameter of approximately 2.4 × 10–10 m. That means the baseball’s wavelength is not only far smaller than the baseball, it’s also about 1024 times smaller than the smallest atom! Of course, no instrument can measure anything that small, and this result tells us that a baseball’s particle nature is virtually all there is. That makes sense to us because “large” objects that we can see and that our frame of reference, personal experience, and common sense tell us are particles behave precisely the way we expect them to — like particles. Such objects don’t pass through each other or create diffraction or interference patterns, and they certainly don’t cancel themselves out. So obviously, to concern ourselves with a wave nature that is so insignificant would be ridiculous. Now let’s calculate the de Broglie wavelength for a much more elusive particle such as hydrogen’s electron. The electron has a mass of 9.11 × 10–31 kg and an estimated velocity of approximately 0.7% the speed of light, which works out to 2.2 × 106 m/s. De Broglie’s equation therefore yields: λ=6.626 × 10–34 J • s (9.11 × 10–31 kg)(2.2 × 106 m/s)= 3.3 × 10–10 mAlthough this is certainly a small wavelength, it is 1.5 times larger than the hydrogen atom itself and therefore represents a significant aspect of the electron’s nature. Imagine yourself shrinking down and entering hydrogen’s nucleus. Looking out from that nucleus at the electron, you might see a wave rather than a particle! If the wave nature of electrons is so prominent, should we expect them to behave as other wavesParticle-Wave Duality do? Should they produce diffraction patterns, be able to pass through each other, interfere with each other, and even cancel themselves out? As bizarre as it sounds, the answer is yes! The answer sounds bizarre because we have no experience with particles or waves on the scale of the atomic or subatomic. In that world, where masses and distances are so small, neither© Edvantage Interactive 2017Chapter 5 A Closer Look at Matter 285particles nor waves behave the way we expect them to. In fact, the distinction between particles and waves doesn’t even exist in that tiny realm. In the macroscopic world of large objects, we have either particles or waves, but in the quantum world, they are the same thing! Many in the scientific community, including Niels Bohr, were initially skeptical about particles also being waves. Then, in 1927, Clinton Davisson and Lester Germer working at Bell Labs in the United States confirmed that electrons did indeed behave like waves. A beam of electrons directed at a nickel crystal generated a diffraction pattern similar to that produced by electromagnetic waves such as X-rays. This proved de Broglie’s hypothesis and brought the theory of dual-nature full circle. Not only did waves behave like particles, but particles behaved like waves. Particle-wave duality set the stage for a very strange proposal soon to come about the nature of electrons. In 1929, Louis de Broglie won the Nobel Prize in physics. The Swedish physicist who introduced him at the ceremony in Stockholm said, “When quite young, you threw yourself into the controversy raging around the most profound problem in physics. You had the boldness to assert, without the support of any known fact, that matter had not only a corpuscular nature, but also a wave nature. Experiment came later and established the correctness of your view.”Quick Check 1. What important concept concerning atomic structure was Bohr’s theory responsible for? 2. Why did Bohr’s atomic model need to be replaced? 3. If particles have a wave nature, why can’t we detect that behavior in the “big” macroscopic world? Sample Problem — Using de Broglie’s Equation Use de Broglie’s equation to calculate the wavelength of an M4 carbine rifle bullet having a mass of 4.1 g travelling at 884 m/s.What to Think aboutHow to Do It1. Remember that you should expect this wavelength to be very small given the relatively large mass of the rifle bullet. 2. Use de Broglie’s equation: h/mv Write the units for joules as kgm2/s2. 3. Express all quantities in scientific notation and pay attention to significant figures in your final answer.286 Chapter 5 A Closer Look at Matterλ= h mv6.626 × 10–34 kg • m2/s2 = (0.0041 kg)(884 m/s) = 1.8 × 10–34 m© Edvantage Interactive 2017Practice Problems — Using de Broglie’s Equation 1. Calculate the de Broglie wavelength of an α-particle having a mass of 6.64 × 10–27 kg travelling at 16 000 km/s.2. Calculate how small the mass of a particle travelling at 16 000 km/s would have to be to have a wavelength equal to that of green light, approximately 486 nm. (Remember to change km/s to m/s and nm to m. Note that the mass you calculate will be in kg.)3. Andy Roddick holds the record for the fastest tennis serve at 240 km/h. Calculate the de Broglie wavelength of a tennis ball with mass of 56 g travelling at 240 km/h.Heisenberg, Schrödinger, and Orbitals As mentioned earlier, not everyone was comfortable with the idea that electrons could be both a particle and a wave. Around 1925, two competing mathematical theories existed that attempted to explain and predict electron behavior. Werner Heisenberg, a young German physicist, developed “matrix mechanics,” which involved complicated and difficult equations. It treated the electron as a pure particle with quantum behavior. An Austrian physicist named Erwin Schrödinger rejected the idea of an electron as a particle. He decided to view the electron mathematically as a pure wave to eliminate some of the strange quantum aspects of electron behavior. In his “wave mechanical” description of the electron, Schrödinger used an equation to describe the electron as a “wave function.” The math was easier than the matrix approach, and the wave equation was popular with many physicists. Each of the two scientists believed that his interpretation was correct, yet neither seemed able to sufficiently predict the mysterious comings and goings of electrons. Within a year, it became clear that matrix and wave mechanics were actually different ways of getting to the same answers. Soon Heisenberg and Schrödinger became crucial contributors as quantum mechanics was eventually united into one theory.Figure 5.3.3 ErwinSchrodingerHeisenberg’s Principle In June of 1925, while teaching at the University of Gottingen, Heisenberg suffered a severe hay fever attack and took a leave of absence to an isolated island in the North Sea. During his stay, he focussed on the problem of electron measurement. After much thought, he came up with one of the most important principles of modern physics. Heisenberg identified a fundamental uncertainty associated with measuring any particles. He called it the uncertainty principle. In the form of a simple equation, the principle stated that it was impossible to know exactly both where any particle was located and where it was going at the same time. Furthermore, the more certain you became of one measurement, the less certain you were of the other. Much like de Broglie’s hypothesis, the equation for the Heisenberg uncertainty principle appeared quite straightforward, but the ramifications were enormous! The principle can be written this way: (m∆v)(∆x) ≥ h/2π© Edvantage Interactive 2017Chapter 5 A Closer Look at Matter 287where m = mass of a particle, ∆v = uncertainty in velocity of a particle, ∆x = uncertainty in the position or location of a particle, and h = Planck’s constant. Think of the symbol ∆ as representing the “plus or minus value” or the “spread of results” in the velocity and location. The equation shows that the uncertainty in where a particle of constant mass is going (∆v) multiplied by the uncertainty in where a particle is located (∆x) is greater than or equal to a very tiny constant (h/2π). This means that the two values are inversely related. The equation tells us that as we become more certain about an object’s position ∆x decreases. As ∆x decreases, the uncertainty in where the object is going, ∆v, increases and vice versa. This certainly isn’t our experience in the world of large objects. For objects big enough to see, such as cars and baseballs, it’s easy at any point in time to say both where they are and where they’re going. If it wasn’t, then the world of large moving objects would be a very dangerous place to live! But the world at the atomic scale is much less cooperative. Once again, a similarity to de Broglie becomes evident as we see an inverse relationship involving Planck’s constant. And once again, the fact that the constant is so incredibly small means that the uncertainty principle only matters on an atomic scale.Figure 5.3.4 WernerHeisenbergSeeing and MeasuringSchrödinger’s Equation The key to understanding this principle at the atomic level is to ask ourselves how we “see” anything. To locate any particle of matter, whether it’s a baseball or an electron, we must somehow illuminate it. We see things, whether they are big or small, because light energy in the form of photons bounces off those objects, is collected and eventually interpreted by our brain or by instruments. For example, suppose we were given a flashlight and told to locate a baseball thrown into a dark room. No problem; we simply turn on the flashlight and immediately know where the ball is and where it’s going. Of course the countless photons striking the baseball have no measurable effect on it because of the ball’s large mass. But what if we used an atomic bomb to supply the energy to illuminate the baseball? Obviously that amount of energy would blow the ball (and the room and building) away so that nothing meaningful concerning its position or motion could be known. “Seeing” an electron also requires that some form of illuminating radiation bounce off of the electron, and there lies the problem. Because the mass of an electron is so unimaginably small, even the energy of one photon striking the electron is more than enough to blow it away in much the same way that the bomb would blow away the baseball. Stated another way, for quantum systems, the very act of measuring something causes a significant change in what we’re measuring. This applies to any measuring method we know. So if Heisenberg was right, then finding electrons and predicting their behavior with certainty isn’t only difficult, it’s impossible! The obvious question is how can we then describe electrons in atoms at all? The answer comes in the form of a compromise from Schrödinger’s wave equation. The equation is complicated and we needn’t worry about solving it here, but what it tells us about electrons is important. Schrödinger represented the electron as a wave function he called ψ (Greek letter psi). The wave function is obtained by solving the equation using the allowed energy states associated with electrons in atoms. Its square, ψ2, gives the probability of finding those electrons within a region of space around the nucleus. The regions in which there is the highest probability of finding electrons are called atomic orbitals. So atomic orbitals represent those regions in threedimensional space around a nucleus where electrons with a particular energy are most likely to be found. We can view an orbital as a probability volume or a “charge cloud” representing a 3D picture of where we will probably encounter electrons around the atom’s nucleus. For different allowed energy states, different numbers and types of orbitals exist. We will discuss these in the next section. So it seems that probability is woven into the fabric of matter at its most basic level and many scientists, including Albert Einstein, resisted this idea. One of Einstein’s most famous statements regarding his objection to the uncertainty principle was, “God does not throw dice.” Note the difference between Bohr’s electron orbit and an electron orbital. No evidence exists that electrons follow a particular path around the nucleus, and Bohr’s atomic model of a negative particle in a specific orbit has been abandoned. Rather, quantum mechanics describes electron288 Chapter 5 A Closer Look at Matter© Edvantage Interactive 2017behavior using the mathematics of waves to determine the probability of finding an electron around the nucleus. This is an orbital. Werner Heisenberg was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1932 and Erwin Schrödinger received the honor the following year for their contributions to quantum mechanics. At this point, it’s valuable to summarize the three important aspects of the quantum mechanical view of the atom. 1. The energies of electrons in atoms are quantized because of their wave nature. This relates to the idea that only certain allowed energy states associated with standing electron waves can exist. 2. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle states that it is impossible to simultaneously state both where an electron is and where it’s going. 3. Atomic orbitals are those regions in 3D space around a nucleus where electrons with a particular energy are most likely to be found.Quick Check 1. How did Heisenberg and Schrödinger see the electron differently? 2. According to quantum mechanics, how can “throwing dice” apply to describing electron behavior? 3. Contrast Bohr’s electron orbit w

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